Italian Food Rules – No Cheese on Fish

Filet o' Fish with Cheese
Filet o’ Fish with Cheese

Except for ordering a cappuccino or a caffellatte after your dinner, nothing is more likely to raise the ire of your Italian waiter than to ask for some grated parmesan to go on your spaghetti alle vongole or pasta al baccala’.

So, as you drive down Interstate 5 munching on your Filet o’ Fish with extra cheese, remember the Italian Food Rule: No Cheese On Fish.

The reasons for the rule are: logic, location, and tradition. But can there be change on the horizon?


Except for salt cod (baccala’), canned tuna, cured sardines and anchovies (acciughe), Italians believe fish should be eaten fresh, as close to the place and time that it is caught. Fish from the seas and rivers of Italy is mild tasting, delicate and needs to be treated with a light touch when it comes to seasoning. The milky saltiness of cheese will overwhelm the flavor of the fish. And fishy cheese is just hard to contemplate, much less swallow.

Hard to imagine but the lunch of choice in a combo of fish sticks and cheese
Hard to imagine, but the lunch of choice is a combo of fish sticks and cheese

But, you might argue, what about all of those strong flavors that are acceptable when cooking fish: capers, lemon, tomato, rosemary, fennel, olive, garlic, etc.?


On top of Fish Pasta all covered with cheese ...
On top of Fish Pasta all covered with cheese …

Italian cheese producing regions tends to be inland and landlocked: parmesan in the north, pecorino in the hills of Tuscany, and buffalo mozzarella to the east and south of Naples. Famed for fish are the Ligurian, Sicilian, Adriatic and Tuscan coastal towns. Italians have been living the Slow Food, zero kilometer lifestyle for centuries, not decades. The recipes celebrate the location and  availability of fresh ingredients: where there is fish there isn’t cheese and visa versa.


Location and tradition meet in the recipes passed down for generations. Italians don’t move far from their places of birth and those places were city-states just 150 years ago. In Livorno, they argue over the types of shellfish and saltwater fish that should go into cacciucco (cheese never enters the discussion). As far as I know, in Bologna everyone is comfortable with adding more cheese on top of a cheesy sauce covering ravioli stuffed with cheese, but no one thinks of filling their ravioli with fish.

Fish swimming in cheese
Fish swimming in cheese

Also, for centuries, tradition dictated that meat and dairy products were forbidden on Friday for religious reasons. Fish was the symbolic and nutritional replacement, but heaven forbade a topping of cheese.

Say It Ain’t So

The Italian Food Rule – No Cheese on Fish – sparks lively debates in the U.S.  Da Silvano, a famous NYC restaurant has printed on the menu, “No cheese served on fish at any time.”  A couple of years ago, competing chef Chuck Hughes was criticized on Iron Chef America when he combined lobster with cheese curds in a poutine (of course, that’s a French dish and what do they know?).

But then there is the guy on the Thinking With Your Stomach blog who came up with a tuna and melted cheese grilled sandwich.

The only acceptable combo of fish and cheese
The only acceptable combo of fish and cheese

Last year, in Bra, Italy, home of the Slow Food movement, at their Cheese 2011 conference one of my favorite seafood chefs, Luciano Zazzeri of La Pineta (on a Tuscan seaside beach) presented a class on matching cheese with fish.

The wry Robert Trachtenberg, writing Just Grate in the NY Times, found the oldest surviving “Sicilian recipe — from around 400 B.C. — for fish: ‘Gut. Discard the head, rinse, slice; add cheese and oil.’”  He also browbeat famous chefs in Rome and Venice until they admitted to serving fish pastas with cheese added in the kitchen.

Trachtenberg quotes the famed cookbook author Nancy Harmon Jenkins, who speaks the truth when she said, “‘One of the great things about Italy is they love making rules. And they obey very few.’”

Italian Food Rules by Ann Reavis is available now. You can buy Italian Food Rules by using these links:

Italian Food Rules: The Book

Amazon. com (U.S.) eBook for Kindle & Kindle Apps

Amazon. com (U.S.) paperback (United Kingdom) (Italy) (Germany) (France)

Barnes & Noble (U.S.) eBook for Nook

13 thoughts on “Italian Food Rules – No Cheese on Fish

  1. Are you seriously as naive as you sound in your post? “But then there is the guy on the Thinking With Your Stomach blog who came up with a tuna and melted cheese grilled sandwich.” You do know what a grilled cheese sandwich is, right? A melt? A tune melt, perhaps?

  2. Nancy, I don’t believe I am “naive”. You probably have the wrong word in mind. Maybe “oblivious” is the word you wanted. Though you would be wrong again, because perhaps you didn’t take the time to click on the link to see that Vincent Esposito of Thinking With Your Stomach wrote that he had made a “Tuna Salad With Grilled Cheese” sandwich (so I was just quoting him) AND he noted that he was “Breaking the Rules: No Cheese on Fish” that his Sicilian grandmother had taught him.

  3. I only recently discovered this rule – I’d been unaware of it for years. I suppose it makes sense in a geographical way. I think, being English, I’m just used to putting cheese on everything! Thanks for sharing this series on food rules – it’s really good. Sarita.

  4. Regardless. It’s still named a tuna melt. “A melt sandwich (also known in Australia, New Zealand, and the United Kingdom as a toasted cheese sandwich or, toastie) is a type of sandwich consisting of bread, some sort of filling, and a layer of cheese, sometimes grated. The sandwich is then grilled or fried until the cheese is melted. It may be served as an open face sandwich or a closed face one.
    One common filling is tuna, with mayonnaise; the result would then be a tuna melt sandwich. Other popular choices are ham, roast beef, chicken, turkey, or a hamburger patty, which is known as a patty melt. It is the filling that establishes the melt sandwich as a variation of the grilled cheese sandwich. Patty melts were a staple of the traditional U.S. diner and were commonly found on menus as far back as the 1950s and possibly the 1940s.” (

    I had them a lot growing up.

  5. I still don’t understand the fish with cheese controversy. I hear the ”rule” every so often but never with an explanation that makes any sense. I give up.

  6. For me as an Italian I can’t understand the controversy of cheese and fish although I do understand the reasoning of why it isn’t usually done. However, my absolute fabulously tasting dish is Fettuccine Alfredo mixed with Salmon. Cook the salmon 4 – 6 ounces separately when done break it into chunks add to the Alfredo and genitally mix until covered. To me it’s amazing. I have on several occasions gone to Italian restaurants and they always have accommodated me. They may not normally serve it….but the customer is always right.

    If the combo sounds good believe me it tastes better than good, try it at home first before you go to a restaurant to see if you like it. I was thinking of this combo and wanted to try it I couldn’t for the life of me find a reason why it couldn’t be served I was right. If anyone tries it let me know if you like it…or not.

  7. No one seems to ever mention the old classic New York style Anchovy Pizza, I have always seen anchovies combined with tomatoes and mozzarella. They don’t leave the Mozzarella out on an anchovy pizza. That is very cheese and fish, and in this case the fish is stronger in flavor than the cheese!

  8. I once asked by the owner of a renowned Italian restaurant in SW London, for parmesan on my Vongole…he went ballistic!! Seeing as some people and a certain country has bastardised language, food and a plethora of other consumables to suit their ‘tastes’…or lack thereof, this comes as no surprise…try finding a Hawaiian pizza in Calabria…try asking for one!! If you were to ask a Parisienne Sommelier to select a Jura Rose for your fois gras, you’d likely get ‘frog-marched’ out of the restaurant.

    I am, as a Personal Chef, aware of client tastes and requests, but some foods, wines and beverages should, in my opinion remain ‘classics’ for very good regional, taste and cultural reasons.

  9. Italian food in Italy can be as diverse as the number of regions, which vary widely in culture and language. I did not grow up eating fish under the no cheese rule per se, but we never used it. It makes sense though to my palette, as cheese has a strong flavor and fish generally has a very mild taste, except for the oily ones, like sardines, salmon, and those fish in the tuna family and I’ve never heard of anyone paring cheese with those fish.

    I make a whole black seabass in a garlicky light marinara, and because of the tomato sauce, to my wife and friends the default is to grate Locatelli over it.

    I make fish tacos also, and have a mixed blend of Mexican cheeses as one of the components to build one’s taco to their taste. But, hey this is not Italian,

    The point of all this is if you want to follow Italian tradition, no cheese with fish. If you like cheese on anything in a non-tradtional Italian way, simply Enjoy!

  10. The flavors also clash.
    PS: Our Italian counterparts would also only order a cappuccino for breakfast. Not dinner.

  11. Vinny, you do not go to a restaurant and tell them to make some dish that you made up, that’s not how it works! You sit down look at the menu and pick something. As someone who works in the restaurant business I can tell you we dread people like that. That being said cheese and fish don’t belong on an Italian plate. Cheese overpowers the fish, however salmon is a stronger fish so maybe you can get away with it easier

  12. The idea of “genitally mixing” an Alfredo sauce (Vinny June 22, 2018) just breaks me up. Titter… titter… titter.

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